سه شنبه، 6 آبان 1399 / 2020 October 27
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Yazdi Mohammad

Muhammad Yazdi (second vice-chairman)

Birth and Childhood

I am Muhammad Yazdi and I was born in 1931 into a religious and knowledgeable family in Isfahan. My father was Sheikh Ali son of Sheikh Muhammad Ali who moved from Yazd to Isfahan about a hundred years ago –when there was a famous seminary in Isfahan managed by Agha Najafi- during the rule of Zell us-Sultan and son of Naser ad-Din shah. He soon achieved higher levels of education and was assigned by that great scholar to hold debates with Christian priests of Jolfa, Isfahan. Evidences and documents of these debates even Arabic translation of old testaments as well as some other scientific books are still preserved in our library as books endowed to descendants. This version of old testaments is a little different from later versions. Following his victories in those debates, he became known as Sheikh Yazdi and was appointed as leader of collective prayers in Seyyed Ahmadan neighborhood in north eastern Isfahan that stretches up to Jahanbare neighborhood. It can be inferred from his writings and books that he was teaching Rasael and Makaseb. His annotations about jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence are available and have been recently edited to be published later.

It is noteworthy that his biography is indexed in Tabaqat Alam al-Shia [A voluminous series covering biographies of great Shiite scholars], under 14th century, no.1954. It is also published in Tazkeratul-Qobour (about scholars and famous individuals in Isfahan) and in Makaremul-Athar p.2053, 19th and 20th centuries.

Sheikh Muhammad Ali Yazdi had two sons and a daughter. His sons were named Ali and Muhammad. Ali (my father) had four sons and three daughters and Muhammad had six sons and six daughters from his two wives. These two brothers were scholars and both had position and status. However, during Reza Shahs rule only Muhammad, the elder son, was officially given the right to put on clerical attire; but both of them never dressed in other attires and never left their clerical guise.

Two of Muhammads sons are clergymen, one of whom resides in Isfahan and the other in Qom. Out of Alis sons, only me is a clergyman.

My mother was from a religious family –and partly wealthy at her time- and this marriage took place due to fame and imamat owned by Sheikh Yazdi. The style of marriage certificate suggests it has been issued about eighty to ninety years ago.

I spent my childhood in Isfahan in that neighborhood. I started to learn how to read and write in maktabkhane [old-fashioned schools] based in the local mosque. Each student would bring a small carpet and a metal sheet on which he would write with reed pen and ink. Once the teacher had checked his writings, he would wash it to write on it again. One of routines of teachers was to sharpen the reed pen and write a model sentence on that sheet. I left maktab to study in fourth grade of the educational system in practice at that time, in the first ever school established based on modern style in Isfahan. It was furnished with desks, chairs, blackboard and chalks. It was managed by a clergyman who was a friend of my fathers. This school was located in Jahanbare neighborhood and was quite far from our house. I successfully passed six grades. Security conditions at those times would make it more secure to have your house and school far from main streets.

Educational Period

I started seminary lessons taught by my father. I learned elementary books by him and then I finished sat-h [preparatory studies before entering higher levels of education in seminary] kasegaran, JaddehBozorg and Molla Abdullah seminaries. I attended lectures by famous teachers at that time such as Mr. Najafabadi, Mr. Faqih, Mr. Adib, Mr. Tabatabaee and so on. Later I moved to Qom and I studied final stages of sat-h from Ayatollah Lakani, Haj Agha Hussein Bodala and late Mr. Zahedi. I studied Kefaya [an advanced book about principles of jurisprudence] from Ayatollah Haj Sheikh MortazaHaeri and ayatollah Marashi, Rasael [another textbook about principles of jurisprudence] from ayatollah Sultani, and Quran interpretation from allameTabatabaee. Then I entered kharej [higher education in seminary equivalent to PhD] of ayatollah Boroojerdi, Araki, Amoli, Shahroodi and Imam Khomeini.

I have written expositions of Ayatollah Boroojerdi concerning attire of one who says prayers to the end of the subject and a part of qadha [how to judge in a court of law] lectured in final year of his life. I have also written Imam Khomeinis expositions on principles of jurisprudence. I have written Ayatollah Arakis expositions on the principle of la zarar [an important principle that forbids any action leading to harms].

Friends and Associates

I had many friends, classmates and associates in Isfahan and Qom, some of whose names I have forgotten. From Isfahan, Mr. FaqihImani, Mr. Madani, Abtahi brothers, Seyyed Muhammad Ali and Muhammad BaqerMajlesi who are scholars. In Qom, ayatollah MuhammadiGilani, Sheikh Muhammad TaqiMesbahYazdi, Seyyed Ali Akbar Mousavi and Haj Sheikh MortazaTehrani (Ansari) who is the leader of a mosque in Tehran etc.

Effective Factors on the Formation of Scientific Personality

My family status and my fathers insistence and interest in seminary type education caused me to become interested in these studies as well. Therefore, like other seminary students coming from villages to Isfahan, I would go to school on Friday evening and return home on Thursday evening. My father often stayed in school for lunch especially when he attended kharej lectures and had discussions with his friends in Molla Abdullah seminary school. I had a room and I was a full time student. I had numerous memories of those times. When I was in seminary of Qom, its dominant atmosphere and political currents, the role of maraje [religious authorities] and Fadaian-e Eslam in these events, the movement for nationalization of the oil industry, August 15, 1953 coup détat and other issues made me interested in political issues. The role of ethics teachers and ethical lessons usually held on Friday eves exerted great influence on the formation of my personality; especially ethics lectures of late Farid Araki –a scholar contemporary of Imam Khomeini- were of great use for me.

Scientific Activities

My first written works were articles published in Hekmat magazine under the title of "Studies about the Human" which coincided with the publication of Ayatollah Makarems "Pseudo-Philosophers". I have other works such as pamphlets called "Mankind and Theology", "What you seek", "Response to Accusations by Mordoch", "Know Hussein bin Ali [AS] in a better fashion", "Fiqhul-Quran", "Foundations of Faith in Quran", "An Excerpt of Knowledge", "A Commentary of the Constitution" as well as some other short pamphlets which have been published by Jameeye Modarresin Publications in a single volume. I have written a series of articles called "In the Constitution" which has been published in ­Noor-e Elm Magazine. I have also authored other articles published in other periodicals and a few small treatises such as interpretation of first chapter of Quran, al-Weladat al-Estenayiatlel-Ensan, Hokm ut-Tamathil, "Man allazi be yade-heeSahmul-Imam?"as well as the treatise of al-Qesama.

I have some manuscripts as well which have been partially organized.

In Isfahan and Qom I would always teach what I have learned to lower level students. This is an advantage of seminaries. I have summarized Manzoome of Sabzevari, section of inheritance rules of Lome and section of "how to judge in a court of law".

Political and Social Activities and Struggles

1-I did not have an outstanding and prominent activity in this filed; however I would deliver speeches in different cities; especially based on a particular plan devised by Imam Khomeini to hold some sessions by scholars on Friday eve when young people would go to the movies to watch indecent movies; some scholars were chosen to attend and manage these sessions. A group of Imam Khomeinis students would attend these sessions. I had a number of trips to some cities including Ahwaz and Saveh. In these cities I managed the sessions and I called respected scholars of the cities to bring up issues about revolutionary struggle based on the mentality and mindset of young people living in those cities.

One of these sessions was the famous session held at Imam Mosque at Qom managed every ten nights by a scholar. Although it was very difficult for me since I had not delivered a sermon in Qom; I was assigned to deliver speeches for twenty nights instead of ten nights; because late Mr. Eshraqi (Imam Khomeinis son-in-law) and Haj Agha Mustafa (Imam Khomeinis elder son) had seen my sermon in Mahallat called "What do clerics say?" and had reported to Imam Khomeini. The title of my discussions was "Dark and Bright Revolutions". I have amazing memories of those sessions but I do not have enough time to write them. One night, Imam Khomeini attended the session and stayed from the beginning to the end.

My relations with Imam Khomeini started with his lectures of principles of jurisprudence held at Almasi mosque in Qom. Once the lecture was over, students would ask their question and problems. Struggle issues and every ones duties in different fields would be mentioned. My relations with Imam Khomeini lasted and expanded up to his demise and would always entail his special kindness.

I believed that Imam Khomeinis name and revolutionary issues should be mentioned in sermons during propagation months of Muharram, Safar, Fatmeyia days as well as the holy month of Ramadhan. Therefore, wherever I went I would criticize the regime and use strong words in my speeches that would lead to my arrest and cancellation of the session. Along with members of Jameeye Modarresin, we would always walk in the path of revolution through participation in their sessions and issuing declarations and announcements. The book "Let us know Imam Hussein [AS] in a better fashion" can be mentioned in this respect. It was reprinted several times but finally SAVAK [shahs intelligence service] banned the book and blocked its distribution.

I was arrested many times in Qom and other cities. I can mention my arrest after a sermon in 21st of Ramadhan in Masjed-e Jame of Qom as well as my arrest after my sermon at ayatollah Golpayeganis house on the day when Qom was on blaze and filled with smoke and tear gas.

I was arrested many times in Qom, Ahwaz, Chaloos, Khomein and Kermanshah and I was jailed in Qezel Qale in Tehran and in prisons of Kermanshah and Boushehr. In each city, I was in jail for months. Once I was jailed in the holy month of Ramadhan in Boushehr, I managed to write "Fiqh ul-Quran".

I was exiled,for the first time, to Kangan. But after a short while I left the place and I was arrested again and sent to the prison in Boushehr. After a couple of months they said I had to return to Kangan to pass the rest of my exile there. I said I would prefer to stay in prison rather than go to Kangan, I am sentenced to be sent to exile; I am not sentenced to death. Finally I was exiled to Boushehr. I have a lot of memories from this period, from martyred scholar, Abu Torab Ashoori. This respectful martyr played a pivotal role in revolutionary struggles of Muslims in Boushehr. When I was exiled to Bandar-e Lengeh I would ask scholars who had come to propagate Islam, to stay for a while and propagate more. Its documents are available in SAVAK records. After a while, I was exiled to Islamabad and it coincided with Imam Khomeinis famous phrase on 15th of Shaban [birth anniversary of twelfth Shiite Imam]:"We do not have a holiday this year and scholars should send this message to people". I delivered a sermon that day and was arrested and sent to the prison in Kermanshah.

I passed my longest exile in Roodabad. In this period, I secretly traveled to Tehran without being noticed by government agents. I made necessary propagations according to the conditions. The most severe one was my confrontation with someone who prayed for the wellbeing of shah. We disrupted his session and next day I was summoned to Rasht. I have forgotten the precise dates and durations of these exiles and imprisonments; however, a large portion of these information is available in my case in SAVAK. I have seen those documents and I have some of them at my own disposal.

Another activity of mine was secret struggle in connection with original combatants in Qom and other cities and holding cultural, political and military sessions and creating groups; numerous official, semi-official and private sessions were held in different places –even in the basement of some of our friends houses- and we had named them "basement struggle". We would duplicate Imam Khomeinis declarations and sent them to different cities. We designated some phone numbers to keep in contact with combatants in other cities and to give necessary precautions and information.We would use passenger buses that would cross Qom at midnight to send declarations to other cities. Designated people would come and get the declarations and ride on these buses to the destination. They would put the declaration in famous and most frequented mosques in the city.

Each group that was connected to us did not know other groups. Handmade weapons called Serahi would be made by these groups. A few revolvers and semi-heavy weapons were provided by friends who would visit me when I was exiled to Islamabad. These weapons were used in Greeting Committee for Imam Khomeinis return to Iran to topple the arrogant regime of shah. The first military activity in Qom was to disarm a military outpost which was a great blow on the arrogant regime and had a great impact to break the soldiers morale and to disrupt the martial law. Serahis were widely applied to confront marshal law and in the battle between people and soldiers and soon became very well known at the time.

Another activity to be mentioned was to provide a safe haven for soldiers who had escaped the army following Imam Khomeinis order before the victory of the revolution. Under those circumstances, my house –where Imam Khomeini stayed after he returned to Iran and to Qom- was a safe haven for these soldiers. Unequipped with necessary facilities, my house was a center for revolutionary forces. In the outside, it had only a 24 square meters room and Imam Khomeini had his meetings there; however his public meetings were held in Feizyie seminary school.

Anyway, soldiers would arrive at this house and we had prepared a group to provide shelter for them and to entertain them. People would provide them with clothes and necessary items. Hundreds of soldiers would come to this place. Once a group of four soldiers with an army Jeep equipped with weapons, police radio, sleeping bags etc. came to the place and claimed they had escaped and asked for shelter. Friends who worked in this section were terrified; we provided four sets of clothes quickly and prepared four people and asked the soldiers in order to prove their sincerity they should go with those people out of the city and change their clothes and surrender. They did so and left the Jeep there and submitted their weapons and stuff. Following this incidence, military commander of the city called me and asked to just return the weapons and said they had taken the Jeep to the headquarters. I said I had no information about this incident. I paid them a visit next day at night. They maintained their relations with us and two of them were martyred at war.

B) After the Victory of Islamic Revolution

We were assigned to manage the Greeting Committee at Qom and prepare a stage for Imam Khomeinis meetings in Feizyie. Since Imam Khomeinis house in Yakhchal-e Gazi neighborhood had narrow alleys and was not suitable for his meetings, a respectable house with enough facilities in Saheli Street with a wide alley that belonged to a merchant in Bazaar was prepared and Imam Khomeini stayed there. After a few days, Imam told his son, Haj Ahmad Agha that he would not stay in that house anymore. We visited different places that were suitable and convenient for public meetings with wide paths. Finally our house in Saheli Street with a wide alley was accepted and we temporarily moved to late Mr. Eshraqis (Imam Khomeinis son-in-law) house.

We had some confrontations with monafeqin (hypocrites). They had occupied a place and gathered weapons there. We retook the place after a harsh dialogue with their heads in Qom. Hanif Nejads mother was present in that session as well.

We fought Khalq-e Mosalman and Shariatmadari and seized the hospital and Dar ut-Tablig. We arrested and imprisoned the main orchestrator in his house. Mr. Shariatmadari told me he would leave Qom. I said it was impossible and we will never allow this to happen. He said what about his security? I said I would personally guarantee it. Finally he said he would accept any decision I would make about his properties such as the hospital, Dar ut-TabligI etc.

Post-Revolutionary Responsibilities

1-Head of Islamic Revolutionary Court at Qom

2-Head of Imam Khomeinis Office

It is noteworthy that Imam Khomeinis office was managed by a council. Late Haj Ahmad Agha, late Mr. Eshraqi, Mr. Rasouli Mahallati, Mr. Gharazi and I were among the members and we had sessions every night.

3-Representatvie of Assembly of Experts for the Constitution

4-Representative of Islamic Parliament; two consecutive terms; first from Qom and second from Tehran

5-Member of Guardian Council after the resignation of Ayatollah Safi

6-Member of the council for the amendment of the constitution in 1990 by Imam Khomeinis decree

7-Head of Judiciary after Imam Khomeinis demise

8- Representative of three branches of the government in the committee to settle the disputes between late Mr. Rajaee and Banisadr. In this committee, late Ayatollah Mahdavi-e Kani was appointed by Imam Khomeini and late Mr. Eshraq by Banisadr. Many sessions and long talks were held whose tapes were confidential and were submitted to the Bureau of Laws at Islamic Parliament.

9-Representative of Assembly of Experts of the Leadership

a) I was elected in the re-elections from Tehran and have attended the sessions.

b) Member of the commission of principle no.110 and no.111. I was elected as the member of the research commission in its session before last. Most of its sessions have been held in our office in Tehran whose proceedings are at the disposal of the secretariat of Assembly of Experts of the Leadership.

c) Vice-chairman of research commission

d) In this period, good decisions were made which are reported in proceedings. I do not remember any important information that I had written.

e) Since the data in this field has been reported in confidential proceedings of Assembly of Experts of the Leadership,nothing can be mentioned; however the speech by chairman of this assembly, Ayatollah Meshkini in the session at Qom about welayat and peoples role as well as numerous objections reflected in pre-agenda speeches by representatives which is finally submitted as a report to the supreme leader and his stipulation that peoples presence is the practical manifestation of welayat can be mentioned.

Important Post-Revolutionary Memories

There are a lot of memories out of which I tell only one.

During the second term of supreme leaders presidency, appointment of a prime minister was in hand; since the prime minister had to be introduced by the president. As the vice-spokesman of the Islamic parliament, I supervised activities in this respect. As the first measure, it was agreed upon that a committee composed of late Ayatollah Mahdavi Kani, Ayatollah Jannati, Hojjat ul-Eslam wal-Moslemin Nateq-e Nouri and I meet with Imam Khomeini and ask him to give freedom to the president who is not willing to introduce Mr. Mousavi as the prime minister so that he can introduce someone else because the president thought of Imam Khomeinis willingness to have Mousavi as the prime minister as a sharI [religious] barrier. We met with Imam Khomeini and spoke one by one. Imam [PBUH] said:" He can introduce anyone he wishes, however I prefer Mr. Mousavi under the current circumstances of the country.When it was my turn, I tried to say something different and not repetitive so I said:"If his eminence, Imam Khomeini does not express his willingness, presidents sharI problem would be resolved." Imam Khomeini said something that nobody added a word and we left. Imam said:"Under the current circumstances, it is treachery to remain silent." After a short coordinative session, we told Ayatollah Khamenei about this issue and he smiled and said: "Now I feel comfortable." Imam Khomeini and we had many similar discussions until it was time for the official introduction. On the day prime minister had to be introduced to the parliament, president had not written anything. As an official in this respect, I asked him after he entered the parliament to write something to be included in the case. In a quite short sentence –which still remains in the case- he voiced his approval of Mr. Mousavi to be introduced as the prime minister.

Presence at the Iraq-Iran Imposed War

There are memories in this respect which are not worth writing. Like most of people, I went to the front several times. Under different conditions, I have been both in “line(the front) or staff” especially on the threshold of expedition and preparation of troops, before and after the liberation of Khurramshahr and before and after conquering al-Faw. Miraculous actions by pioneers of revolution and war especially after [Saddams] use of chemical weapons are memories that should be heard from soldiers and military forces.

نام پدر
سال تولد
محل تولد
نماینده استان
نام مهم‏ترین اساتید درس خارج
نام تخصص‏هاى علمى (غیر از فقه و اصول)
نام مهم‏ترین آثار علمى
فعالیت‏هاى علمى
مسئولیت كنونی
مسئولیت قبلى
پست الكترونیكی
اسم الأب
تاریخ الولادة
محل الولادة
محل الإقامة
ممثل محافظة
أبرز أساتذة خارج الفقه
التخصصات العلمیة
أهم عناوین الآثار
النشاطات العلمیة
المسئولیة الحالیة
المسئولیة السابقة
برید الإلکترونی
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